Translation Methods (Artikel)

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There are eight types of translation methods such as: word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation, semantic translation, adaptive translation, free translation, idiomatic translation, and communicative translation.

Word For Word translation:

The SL word order is preserved and the words translated by their most common meanings. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process.

Literal translation:

The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical item are again translated out of context. As pre-translation process, it indicates problems to be solved.

Faithful translation:

It attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TLwithin the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to theto be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realisation of the SL writer.

Semantic translation:

It differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, compromising on 7meaning where appropriate so that no assonance, word play or repetition jars in the finished version. It does not rely on cultural equivalence and makes very small concessions to the readership. Whilemakes very small concessions to the readership. While`faithful' translation is dogmatic, semantic translation is.more flexible.

Communicative translation:

It attempts to render the exact contextual meaning in such a way that both language and content are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the.readership.

Idiomatic translation:

It reproduces the message of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms.

Free translation:

It reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original.


This is the freest form of translation mainly used for plays and poetry: themes/characters/ plots preserved, SL culturecharacters/ plots preserved, SL culture converted to TL culture & text is rewritten. (From A Textbook of Translation by P.Newmark)

Source : Methods of Translation

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